Aluminum Acetate is sometimes used as the preferred alum mordant for cellulose fibres and fabrics. It is refined from bauxite, and acetic acid is used as a purifying agent. For this reason some natural dyes develop to a richer shade on cellulose.
Madder is one of the oldest dyestuffs. It is most frequently used to produce turkey reds, mulberry and in combination with other dyes can yield crimson, purple, rust and browns. The primary dye component is called alizarin, which is found in the roots of the plant. Two concentrates of extracts are available giving a standard and a rich madder colour. Dyeing: Use madder rich at 5-10 % WOF. Do not allow the dye bath to go above 180ºF as this brings out the brown colour also found in madder.